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Ing. Miroslav Očenášek, CSc. 

Ocenasek, M.; Peca, M. Regeneration of cation-exchange resins with sulfuric acid. (1990) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv , D58, 209-16.  

Regeneration of Wofatit KPS-DS cation-exchange filters for softening of feed water in elec. power plants was investigated.  The resin was regenerated by using 1% H2SO4 and 2% H2SO4.  The optimum charge for regeneration was 100 g/L (as 100% H2SO4).  The water quality was satisfactory.  Penetration of Na+ was ≤2 μg/L water, and the filters were regenerated when Na+ penetration reached 100 μg/L.

 Ocenasek, M.; Stonawski, J.; Eliasek, J. Use of cation exchangers for treatment of wastes from nuclear power stations.  1.  Effect of citric and oxalic acids on the sorption of some cations. (1982) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv, D45, 153-76.  

The use of strong acid cation exchangers for concn. of radioactive nuclides from chem. decontamination of the primary cycle of the nuclear power station was examd.  Ni(II), Co(II), Fe(III), and Cr(III) either were sepd. or in the mixt. were sorbed from their 0.0025-0.005M solns. in H2O, in 0.05M citric acid, or in 0.04M oxalic acid by gel-type Lewatit S 100 or macroreticular Wofatit KS 10 in H+ forms.  In the presence of the org. acids the sorption of Ni(II) and Co(II) was unchanged but Fe(III) and Cr(III) were sorbed incompletely.  The metals could be eluted with HCl or with large excess of HNO3.

Mostecky, J.; Kubelka, V.; Ocenasek, M. Deodorization and treatment of wastewater in water conservation, especially in large cattle fattening stations (1981) patent CS 190083 B1 19790531.  

The title waste is passed consecutively through a column charged with strongly basic anion exchanger and a column contg. coke and then treated biol.  The ion exchanger is regenerated with a 4% aq. NaOH soln. or 1.5% lime water.  The spent coke charge is burned.

Ocenasek, M.; Matejka, Z.; Kriz, V. Sorption of mercury from aqueous solutions on polar sorbents. (1980) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv , D 41, 43-64.  

Removal of Hg from wastewater was most effective with Lewatit OC 1014 (I)  [58449-44-8], a Hg selective cation exchange resin, but in Cl--contg. waters a strongly basic anion resin, Ostion ATP 3011 (II)  [78810-26-1], in which the Me3NH+ was replaced with thiol groups was also effective, whereas a chelating cationic resin, Lewatit TP 207  [57285-14-0] was least effective.  I was best regenerated with Na2S and II with concd. HCl.  Sorption was not by exchange of counterions but by a chem. reaction between the resin functional group and Hg ions.

Benes, M. J.; Stamberg, J.; Ocenasek, M.; Matejka, Z. Mercury sorbents with thiol and quaternary ammonium groups. (1980) Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie , 91, 109-15.

Macroporous bifunctional Hg adsorbents contg. both quaternary ammonium and thiol groups were prepd. by treating poly[(vinylbenzyl)triethylammonium chloride] with KSCSOEt followed by treatment with NH4OH.  Both active groups complemented one another raising selectivity at high dilns. and capacity in the presence of excessive alkali chlorides and regenerability in repeated cycles.

Benes, M.; Stamberg, J.; Ocenasek, M.; Matejka, Z. Mercury sorbents with thiol and quaternary ammonium groups. (1979) Prepr. Short Contrib. - Bratislava IUPAC Int. Conf. Modif. Polym., 5th , 1, 12-17.  

Thiol groups were introduced into a strongly basic anion exchanger to give an adsorbent with a high affinity for chloro complexes of Hg in alk. solns.  A water slurry of poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride) was transferred (25 mL) to EtOH by washing and refluxed 9.5 h with 9.14 g K Et xanthogenate in 87.5 mL EtOH.  The product was hydrolyzed with 85 mL 7.5% NH4OH 12 h at room temp.  The resulting resin maintained a high capacity for adsorption of Hg over many adsorption-desorption cycles, while a com. anion exchanger gradually lost its capacity due to deterioration of active sites.

Talasek, V.; Vosta, J.; Eliasek, J.; Mostecky, J.; Ocenasek, M.; Matejka, Z. Treatment of surface waters and power engineering condensates containing organic cations (1978) patent CS 171820 B1 19761129.  

Polluted waters are passed through a mixed bed contg. a macroporous strongly acid cation exchanger (A) and a gel cation exchanger (B).  The loose inner structure of the macroporous ion exchanger permits reversible sorption and easy desorption of large org. cations and protects the gels from contact with dissolved org. substances.  Macroporous Lewatit S 100X10/50  [68517-53-3] (cross-linked with 10% divinylbenzene) or a combination of Lewatit CNP  [56940-15-9] with Zerolit 225  [37206-32-9] are used for A and the gel cation exchanger Lewatit S 100X10  [68517-52-2] for B.

Ocenasek, M.; Ruprych, M.; Krcal, Z.; Polak, J. Producing sterile apyrogenic water (1974), CS 154810 B1 19740430.

Pure condensed vapor or demineralized drinking water was passed through 2 cation exchanger beds of styrene resin.  The 1st bed was converted to H cycle with an 8:1 mixt. of 2-4% H2SO4 and 1-3% HNO3.  The 2nd bed was washed with a 0.5M AgNO3 soln. and elementary Ag sepd. by redn. with a 5% Na2S2O4 soln. as a fine dispersion. 

Matejka, Z.; Ocenasek, M.; Eliasek, J.; Mostecky, J.; Uher, J.; Prokupek, J.; Tuna, J. Simultaneous removal of aldehydes, ketones, and acids from solutions by anion exchangers (1974) patent DE 2426274 A1 19741205.  

Oxo compds. are removed from aq. or nonaq. solns., e.g., paper industry waste water, by weakly or moderate basic anion exchangers in the HSO3 form, because of strong retention of the formed α-hydroxy sulfonic anions by the exchangers.  Optionally, a weakly basic anion exchanger is converted to the HSO3 form by the SO2 in the soln.  By the use of weakly instead of strongly basic exchangers the effective vol. capacity was increased.  Thus, a soln. contg. 42 mequiv. AcOH/l., 2 mequiv. HCO2H/l., 5 mmoles MeCHO/l. and 10 mmoles SO2/l. was passed over a weakly basic anion exchanger (Wofatit AD 41) in form of the free base at sp. load 10 l./hr/l.  The exchanger had effective vol. capacity 1.03 equiv./l.

Kadlec, V.; Matejka, Z.; Ocenasek, M. Regeneration of mixed ion exchanger bed in situ (1972) patent CS 146595 19721215.  

Mixts. of a slightly acidic cation exchanger contg. carboxylic or phenol groups, and a slightly basic anion exchanger contg. amino groups are regenerated by a single feed of water satd. with CO2 which is passed countercurrently to the direction of the deionization cycle.  During the regeneration cycle, H2O and CO2 react with the cation (X) retained by the cation exchanger during the deionization cycle to yield X+ and HCO3- which takes part in the regeneration of the anion exchanger.  This reacts with X+ and HCO3- to give the free base and the HCO3- form.  From the effluent, CO2 can be stripped by aeration and recycled.

Ocenasek, M.; Pelikan, J.; Eliasek, J. Neutralization of acid waste waters from direct cooling of combustion products (1971) patent CS 139660 19710115.  

H2SO3 and H2SO4 contained in flue gas wash water are removed, without salt formation, by the use of an anion exchange bed which is regenerated alternately by an alk. desulfurization soln. contg. NH4OH, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2SO3, and (NH4)2CO3.  The effluent from resin regeneration is recycled to water used to absorb S oxides.  Useful ion exchange resins are Dowex 3 and Wofatit L 150.

Ocenasek, M.; Burianek, K.; Urban, J.; Cvejn, J. Neutralization of wastes from desalination plants based on ion exchangers (1970) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv , D 20, 49-66.  

A mixt. of a carboxyl cation exchanger and weakly basic anion exchanger in a 1:1 ratio is recommended for disposing of waste regeneration solns. from a desalination plant.  This mixt. maintains by neutralization the regeneration wastes in the pH range 6.5 to 8.5, the equalization of concns. of both the solns. in the holding tanks being recommended.  The reverse vol. changes in both masses in passing from one cycle to the other alternate contact with acid and alk. wastes are a pos. contribution to the use of this mixt. in filters of ordinary std. type.  If the regeneration regime of the desalination plant as regards the equivalence of the used amt. of acids and hydroxides is not equalized, the resp. portion of acid washing waters should be introduced into a reservoir of cooling water under the tower.  In this reservoir there is a buffer capacity sufficient for the neutralization of the H+ ions since the consumption of cooling water in the circulation water-steam is a multiple of the vol. of water added for feeding the steam boilers.

Ocenasek, M.; Kadlec, V.; Matejka, Z. Regeneration of weakly alkaline anion exchange resins. (1969) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv , 18, 39-47.  

The possibility of decreasing the necessary amt. of H2O needed for regeneration of anion-exchange resins fouled with org. materials, based on using NaHCO3 instead of NaOH, was studied and tested successfully.

Vosta, J.; Talasek, V.; Ocenasek, M.; Eliasek, J.; Volak, J. Use of piperidine as a volatile alkalization agent. (1969) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv , 18, 15-28.

Piperidine was used as a volatile alkalization agent and corrosion inhibitor in a high-pressure steam-water circuit.  Piperidine is of sufficiently basic character, which makes it possible to decrease P2O5 content in boiler water to the 3 mg/l. level.  It achieved a 70-80% decrease of Fe level in the system, and is inactive with respect to Cu.  In the H-form of strongly acid cation exchangers piperidine is quant. sorbed as piperidinium cation and regeneration of exchanger is quite possible.

Pelikan, J.; Ocenasek, M.; Eliasek, J. Apparatus for the determination of capacity of ion exchangers for the removal of dissolved oxygen from water (1969) patent CS 131203 19690215.

Water is satd. with O produced electrolytically with a known quantity of elec. current.  Satd. water is passed through a column of ion exchanger and the decrease in the O content, removed by the ion exchanger, detd. by means of a thermally conductive cell which has the measuring filaments connected in a Whe atstone bridge.  The app. excludes the influence of atm. O, does not require involved batching of O, and laborious anal. methods.

Ocenasek, M.; Erlebach, J.; Lischke, P.; Solin, V. Germanium in waste waters.  I.  Application of ion exchange. (1968) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, F:  Technologie Vody, 13, 81-97.  

The waste waters from the processing of Ge contain GeF62-, NO3-, and F.  The removal of GeF62- was achieved on Wofatit L 150 in OH-form, which can treat 120 × its own vol. of soln., contg. GeF62- 20, NO3- 40, and F- 100 meq./l. with acidity 140 meq./l., from which <2% of GeF62- are not retained.  The regeneration is done with 2% NaOH. 

Talasek, V.; Ocenasek, M. Spectrophotometric determination of extremely low concentrations of iron in a condensate. (1967) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv , 15, 15-20.

The various influences that are to be considered in the course of spectrophotometric detn. of Fe2+ with 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline were studied.  Dependence of complex color formation on the pH of the sample after buffer addn. was verified and optimal pH (3.25-4.5) conditions were chosen.  Iso-AmOH and n-hexyl alc. were most suitable for extn.  The long boiling of the acid sample was necessary to convert nonionic Fe to an ionic form quant.  To 100 ml. of the sample add 2 ml. HCl (1:9), reflux for 1 hr., cool, add 2 ml. 10% NH2OH.HCl, mix, add 6 ml. 10% AcONa, mix with 2 ml. 0.0075M (by extn. detn.) or 2 ml. of 0.001M (by direct detn.) 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline in EtOH.  The extn. time with 20 ml. of the extn. agents was 3 min.  The 2 layers sepd. after standing 15 min. At concns. of Fe >20 γ/l. it is advantageous to use the direct method, at concns. of Fe 2+ ext. in iso-AmOh and n-hexanol was at 535 nm.

Kadlec, V.; Matejka, Z.; Ocenasek, M. Sodium bicarbonate as regenerating agent for weakly basic anion exchangers. (1967) Mitteilungen der Vereinigung der Grosskesselbesitzer , No. 108, 209-10.

In the regeneration of weakly basic anion exchangers, e.g. Wofatit L150 or Amberlite IR 145, with 4% NaOH, Na2CO3, or NH4OH the consumption of water for washing increases over 3 years from 7, 6, and 6 times the resin bed vol. to 47, 39, and 15 times, resp.  By using NaHCO3 as the regenerating agent the vol. of washing water remains at 5 times the bed vol. with considerable saving in time and water consumption in industrial plants.

Vosta, J.; Talasek, V.; Ocenasek, M.; Eliasek, J.; Dluhos, J. Piperidine, a new volatile alkalizing agent. (1967) Mitteilungen der Vereinigung der Grosskesselbesitzer, No. 106, 39-41.  

Piperidine is effective in concns. of 2 mg./l. in the alkali treatment and softening of boiler water and its use enables the phosphate concn. to be lowered to 3 mg. of P2O5/l.  It also protects the boiler against corrosion.

Brodsky, A.; Kadlec, V.; Ocenasek, M. Evaluation of the effect of organic matter on ion exchangers by using the mixed-bed test. (1966), Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv , 10, 35-43.  

For demineralization of water a mixt. of ion exchangers was used.  The org. compds. effect the activity of weak basic ion exchangers and therefore they were removed before they enter the demineralization station by using a highly porous ion exchanger.  The changes of elec. cond. in relation to the concn. of org. compds., the so-called mixed-bed test, were observed for Amberlite MB-1 with different samples of water.  The results showed that org. compds. must be removed before demineralization of water with ion exchang

Ocenasek, M.; Cech, B.; Volak, J. Cooling-water demineralization after polyphosphate-inocculation treatment. (1966) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv , 10(27-34), 27-34.  

The presence of polyphosphate anions in water from the condenser of the steam turbine was not a hindrance for using this water as a raw material for prepn. of addnl. water for filling of steam boilers.  No disturbing effects were found either in the quality of the produced water or on the ion-exchanging resins in the demineralization station.  The advantage of the approx. const. temp. of cooling water could be used at all steps of water treatment also after polyphosphate inoculation.  The content of phosphates in the used salts as an inoculation soln. was 53-64% and for polyphosphates 51-63%.

Ocenasek, M. Foreign language nomenclature in the power plant branch of chemical engineering. (1966) Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv , 10, 75-94. 

About 150 technical terms most frequently used by the power plant chem. engineer are listed in Czech., Eng., Fr., Ger., and Russ.

Ocenasek, M.; Matejka, Z. The influence of organic matter on anion exchangers. (1962) Sb. Vysoke Skoly Chem. Technol. Praze, Technol. Vody , 5(2), 293-312.

Asmit 259 or similar weakly basic porous anion exchangers can deionize water and remove from it org. matter.  It is regenerated with satd. NaHCO3 soln. and requires 178 g. NaHCO3/l. of resin.  Regeneration with alk. soln. of NaCl after 60 cycles, when the resin required 4.5 g. O/l. of resin for the oxidn. of org. matter with Ce4+, brought it back to the original value.  The capacity of Asmit 259 has not been impaired during the expts. and remained 300 meq./l.

Ocenasek, M.; Kysela, B. Influence of oxidants on ion exchangers. I. Stability of some cation exchangers and anion exchangers in the solutions of chromates and chromic acid. Sb. Vysoke Skoly Chem. Technol. Praze, Technol. Vody (1962), 5(2), 313-22.  

Static tests at room temp. showed that the suitability of ion exchangers for the treatment of CrO42- and CrO3 solns. decreases in series: cation exchangers S, Zerolit 225, Wofatit KPS 200, KU - 2, FN; anion exchangers MFD, Zerolit FF, Amberlite IR-4-B, Zerolit E, EDE-10 P.

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