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prof. Ing. Zdeněk MATĚJKA, CSc.


prof. Ing. Zdeněk MATĚJKA, CSc. (*1937 - †2006)

1997 - 2002  vedoucí Ústavu energetiky

Narozen v roce 1937 v Teplicích.

Maturoval na 12-ti leté škole v Praze-Vršovicích. Studoval na Fakultě technologie paliv a vody VŠCHT v Praze, na Katedře technologie vody, zaměření energetika. V letech 1960-1972 byl zaměstnán v ČKD Dukla, n. p., v roce 1967 obhájil kandidátskou disertační práci na téma „Kontinuální příprava ultra-čisté vody deionizací“. V roce 1972 nastoupil jako odborný asistent na Katedru energetiky. V roce 1990 obhájil habilitační práci „Uplatnění ionexů při ochraně životního prostředí“ (docent pro obor Technologie vody). V roce 2000 byl jmenován profesorem pro obor „Chemie a technologie životního prostředí“.

Jeho vědecká a výzkumná činnost byla zaměřena na teorii a využití iontové výměny a sorpčních procesů, v poslední době též membránových postupů a to převážně v oblasti úpravy průmyslových vod pro energetiku a v oblasti úpravy vody (pitné, odpadní) v rámci ochrany životního prostředí.

  V roce 2003 mu byla udělena medaile prof. Ferdinanda Schulze.

Mistova, E., Parschova, H., Jelinek, L., Matejka, Z., Sebesta, F. Sorption of Metal Oxoanions by Composite Biosorbents of Waste Material of Brown Seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and PAN Separation Science and Technology (2010), 45(16), 2350-2355.  

Two different composite sorbents of chem. modified dealginaded seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (DS-2 and DS-3) were used for the selective removal of metal (W, Mo, and V) oxoanions.  All expts. were carried out by dynamic column sorption.  The effects of the pH, flow rate and the concn. of the accompanying anions in the feed soln. were studied.  Sorption of tungstate, molybdate and vanadate anions was successful.  The composite sorbents exhibited high stability during more than 25 sorption cycles.

Mistova, E., Parschova, H., Jelinek, L., Matejka, Z., Plichta, Z., Benes, M. Selective sorption of metal oxoanions from dilute solution by chemically modified brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum Separation Science and Technology (2008), 43(11-12), 3168-3182.

Two samples of chem. modified seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (NS-1 and DS-1) were used for selective removal of metal (W, Mo, V, Ge, and Sb) oxoanions.  All expts. were carried out by dynamic column sorption.  The effects of pH, the concn. of the accompanying anions in the feed soln., and the effect of the flow rate were studied.  Tungstate, molybdate, and vanadate were adsorbed extensively.  Sorption of Sb(III) anion was notable but the sorption capacity was very low and the desorption was difficult.  Sorption of Ge(IV) oxoanion was negligible.  Stability of the NS-1 and DS-1 sorbents was limited by 20 and 25 sorption cycles, resp. 

Parschova, H., Matejka, Z., Mistova, E. Mutual Separation of (W, As, Mo, V, Ge, B) Oxoanions from Bi-metallic Solution by Resin having Methyl-Amino-Glucitol Moiety   Separation Science and Technology (2008), 43(5), 1208-1220.  

The mutual sepn. of (W, As, Mo, V, Ge, B)-oxoanions using resin having methyl-amino-glucitol polymeric moiety from bimetallic soln. was investigated by dynamic column expts.  The effect of soln. pH on the sepn. efficiency and on the co-removal level of metallic impurities was followed in this study.  The conditions for efficient desorption of metals were detd. to get the highly concd., impurities free soln. suitable for recovery and reuse of sepd. metal.  Effective sepn. of molybdenum and vanadium from boron or germanium and tungsten from arsenic was achieved.

Kabay, N.; Bryjak, M.; Schlosser, S.; Kitis, M.; Avlonitis, S.; Matejka, Z.; Al-Mutaz, I.; Yuksel, M. Adsorption-membrane filtration (AMF) hybrid process for boron removal from seawater: an overview   Desalination (2008), 223(1-3), 38-48.  

A review.  The general objective of this study is to explore the suitability and performance of the adsorption-membrane filtration (AMF) hybrid process technol. for boron removal from seawater and/or RO first stage permeate.

 Parschova, H., Mistova, E., Matejka, Z., Jelinek, L., Kabay, N., Kauppinen, P., Comparison of several polymeric sorbents for selective boron removal from reverse osmosis permeate  Reactive & Functional Polymers (2007), 67(12), 1622-1627.  

Fibrous sorbents based on polypropylene and viscose fibers grafted with styrene or glycidyl methacrylate and functionalized with N-methylglucamine were compared with classical polystyrene/DVB bead sorbent with N-methylglucamine functional group.  Tests were carried out in dynamic column mode.  Model soln. of reverse osmosis permeate contg. 1.5 mg/L of boron was pumped through 5 mL of sorbent packed in glass column.  Fibrous sorbents showed much faster sorption kinetics than bead sorbent, tolerating high specific flow-rates.  Compared to bead sorbent, boron regeneration profiles of fibrous sorbents were narrower and they could be successfully regenerated with more dild. hydrochloric acid.

Mistova, E., Parschova, H., Matejka, Z. Selective sorption of metal oxoanions from dilute solution by bead cellulose sorbent  Separation Science and Technology (2007), 42(6), 1231-1243.  

Bead sorbent Perloza MT 50 was used for selective removal of metal W, Mo, V, Ge, and Sb oxoanions.  All expts. were carried out by dynamic column sorption.  Sorption of tungstate and molybdate anions was successful.  The sorption capacity decreased with increasing concn. of accompanying anions (chlorides, sulfates) and with increasing pH (3.5-5.5).  Sorption of vanadate anion was possible but the sorption capacity was very low.  Sorption of Ge(IV) and Sb(III) oxoanion was negligible.

Parschova, H., Matejka, Z., Mistova, E. Removal of undesirable oxyanions (NO3-, Cr, As, and Sb) from water solutions  Vodni Hospodarstvi (2007), 57(1), 23-26.  

This work is a review of selective technologies used form removal of oxoanions (NO3-, Cr, As, Sb) from contaminated drinking water resources.  Several ion exchange technologies utilizing selective ion exchangers and inorg. sorbents and membrane technologies (reverse osmosis and nanofiltration) are reviewed.  The processes of selective nitrate removal from drinking water by strong base anion exchanger with triethylammonium functional groups, removal of Sb (III and V) by sorbent with 1-deoxy-1-methylamino-glucitol functional group and removal of As (III and V) and Sb (III and V) by inorg. sorbents (alumina and GEH) are presented.

Kraus, W., Stephan, H., Roellichy, A., Matejka, Z., Reck, G. K6H2[TiW11CoO40]·13H2O, with a monotitanoundecatungstocobaltate(II) anion Acta Crystallographica, Section E: Structure Reports Online (2005), E61(3), i35-i37.

Hexapotassium dihydrogen monotitanoundecatungstocobaltate(II) tridecahydrate, K6H2[TiW11CoO40]·13H2O, crystallizes from aq. soln. in cubic space group P‾43m, with a 10.6850(16) Å; Z = 1, dc = 4.410; R= 0.039, Rw(F2) = 0.097 for 730 reflections.  The structure was refined as an inversion twin.  The [TiW11CoO40]8- anion has a Keggin structure with one W-atom site occupied by Ti and a central tetrahedral CoO4 group.

Matejka, Z., Parschova, H., Ruszova, P., Jelinek, L., Houserova, P., Mistova, E., Benes, M., Hruby, M. Selective uptake and separation of oxoanions of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, and germanium by synthetic sorbents having polyol moieties and polysaccharide-based biosorbents Edited by Moyer, Bruce A.; Singh, Raj P., Fundamentals and Applications of Anion Separations, [Proceedings of the Symposium "Fundamentals and Applications of Anion Separations" held during the American Chemical Society National Meeting], Chicago, IL, United States, Aug. 26-31, 2001 (2004), 249-261.  

A review.  To meet the environmental WHO limits on drinking water, the oxoanions of V(V), Mo(VI), W(VI), and Ge(IV) must be removed from water down to μg/L levels.  Here, sepn. processes for aq. solns. contg. these oxoanions were investigated.  First, the mechanism of the selective sorption of oxoanions is discussed.  To obtain a high sorption efficiency, a highly stable complex of the diol ligand with the oxoanion must be formed inside of the sorbent matrix, and a fast overall kinetics of the oxoanion uptake is necessary.  The uptake of oxoanions was investigated for various sorbents in the form of beads.  It is distinguished between synthetic sorbents and polysaccharide-based biopolymer sorbents.  The synthetic sorbents studied were: (i) a polyol sorbent contg. the 1-deoxy-methylaminoglucitol moiety immobilized in a styrene/divinylbenzene (S/DVB) matrix and (ii) a polyol sorbent consisting of the diethanolamine moiety immobilized in the S/DVB matrix.  The biopolymeric sorbents studied were: (i) crosslinked chitosan (poly-D-glucosamine) beads, (ii) crosslinked cellulose beads, and (iii) brown-algea seaweed (Ascophyllum Nodosum).

 Paidar, M., Bouzek, K., Jelinek, L., Matejka, Z. A combination of ion exchange and electrochemical reduction for nitrate removal from drinking water. Part II: Electrochemical treatment of a spent regenerant solution  Water Environment Research (2004), 76(6), 2691-2698.

The process of electrochem. treatment of a soln. after strong basic anion exchanger regeneration was studied.  The goal was to reduce the nitrate content in the soln. to allow its use in a closed loop.  Diaphragmless, flow-through cells in a recirculation mode with and without a fluidizing bed of inert particles in the interelectrode space equipped with Cu cathodes and activated Ti anodes were used.  The temp. was maintained at 20°.  To assess the influence of recirculation of the regenerant soln. on the quality of the treated water, the effect of the addn. of copper ions to the soln., postelectrolysis cathode treatment, and enhanced mass transfer on the electrolysis results with respect to current efficiency and residual nitrate and nitrite concn. were studied using an artificial soln.  On the basis of the exptl. results, a lab.-scale unit for selective nitrate removal was designed and constructed that integrated ion exchange and electrochem. cell to one assembly.  The process of recirculation of regenerant soln. was tested using groundwater.

 Jelinek, L., Parschova, H., Matejka, Z., Paidar, M.,Bouzek, K. A combination of ion exchange and electrochemical reduction for nitrate removal from drinking water. Part I: Nitrate removal using a selective anion exchanger in the bicarbonate form with reuse of the regenerant solution Water Environment Research (2004), 76(6), 2686-2690. 

The process of selective nitrate removal from drinking water by ion exchange was studied.  A com. strong base anion exchanger with triethylammonium (-N+Et3) functional groups was used in the HCO3- and CO32- form.  The aim was to optimize ion-exchanger regeneration in view of the subsequent electrochem. redn. of nitrates in the spent regenerant soln.  The effects of ion-exchanger form, concn. of regenerant soln., and presence of nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates in the regenerant soln. were studied.  The strong base anion exchanger in HCO3- form that was studied was able to treat 270 bed vols. of model water soln. contg. 124 mg/dm3 nitrates.  To achieve adequate regeneration of the satd. anion exchanger, it is necessary to use ∼30 bed vols. of fresh 1M NaHCO3regenerant soln.  The presence of residual 50-mg/dm3 nitrates in the regenerant soln., treated by electrolysis, resulted in an increase in the dose of regenerant soln. to 35 bed vols. and a decrease in the subsequent sorption run of ∼13%.  The vol. of applied regenerant soln. was high, but the consumption of NaHCO3 for regeneration was low.

 Hruby, M., Korostyatynets, V., Benes, M., Matejka, Z. Bifunctional ion exchange resin with thiol and quaternary ammonium groups for the sorption of arsenate Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications (2003), 68(11), 2159-2170.  

A bifunctional resin with thiol and quaternary ammonium groups was prepd. from a macroporous strongly basic anion exchange resin of the styrene-divinylbenzene type.  The key step of the synthesis is the reaction of the quaternary benzyltrimethylammonium group of the ion exchange resin with suitable S-contg. nucleophiles.  Three synthetic routes are described: direct conversion to thiol with Na sulfide, reaction with potassium O-Et dithiocarbonate followed by decompn. of the dithiocarbonate with ammonia or acid and conversion to polymeric isothiuronium salt by the reaction with thiourea and subsequent alk. hydrolysis to thiol.  Sorption of arsenate on thiol resin and its Fe(III) complex was studied.

 Matejka, Z.; Ruszova, P.; Parschova, H.; Jelinek, L.; Kawamura, Y. Selective uptake of (Mo, V, W, As)-oxoanions by crosslinked chitosan; beads vs. fibers Advances in Chitin Science (2002), 6, 213-216.  

The ability of a cross-linked chitosan to form stable diol-complexes with oxoanions and to remove them from soln. was studied.  Chitosan was cross-linked by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether and used as beads or fibers without any functionalization.  Chitosan crosslinking degree in the free base form was crucial for selective uptake of Mo, W, and V oxoanions as binuclear complexes and to achieve metal concns.

Jares, P., Matejka, Z., Parschova, H. Versatile use of alumina  Prague 2000, International Symposium & Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central & Eastern Europe, Proceedings, 5th, Prague, Czech Republic, Sept. 12-14, 2000 (2001), 2069-2073.  

Alumina is one of the most important sorption material.  In alk. pH area alumina is used as a cation exchanger and in acidic and neutral pH area it is used as an anion exchanger.  My work deals with the selective sorption of toxic anions on alumina.  Protonated and nonprotonated alumina Alcoa DD-2 (28 x 48 mesh) was used in this work.  HAsO42-, H2AsO4-, F-, SiO32-, PO43-, VO3- anions were sorbed on protonated alumina, while HAsO42-, H2AsO4-, AsO2-, SiO32- anions on nonprotonated alumina.  The influence of regeneration on breakthrough capacity, leakage level, and abrasion of alumina was studied.  Striping of the sorbed anion was carried out with 4% soln. of NaOH.  Protonation was carried out with 3% soln. of HCl.  Protonated alumina is more abrasion than nonprotonated.  Nonprotonated alumina exhibited higher leakage level than protonated at the beginning of cycle.  Feed soln. consists of 1750 mg/L of chloride, 600 mg/L of sulfate and 5-100 mg/L of removable anions.  Arsenic (III and V) and vanadate was analyzed by at. absorption spectrophotometry using graphite furnace technique.  For the analyses of phosphate, fluoride and silicate colorimetric detn. on spectrophotometer was used.

Jelinek, L., Matejka, Z., Inoue, K., Miyajima, T. Adsorption properties of humic substances Prague 2000, International Symposium & Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central & Eastern Europe, Proceedings, 5th, Prague, Czech Republic, Sept. 12-14, 2000 (2001), 866-869.

Adsorption of humic acids (HA) taken from different origins in Japan and isolated by an IHSS std. method as well as HA isolated from brown coal was carried out on a clay mineral vermiculite.  The effects of HA concn., origin (structure) and the influence of pH were investigated.  Clay mineral was shaken with soln. of HA for 24 h at 303.15 K, then concn. of HA was measured on UV-VIS spectrophotometer at λ = 400 nm taking in the account the pH dependence of HA absorbance.  Aromaticity of HA was estd. by measuring their UV absorbance at 272 nm and by IR spectroscopy.  Adsorption properties of HA were found to be strongly dependent on its origin as the structure of HA varied with its origin.  It was possible to est. the HA adsorption properties measuring the aromaticity of HA skeleton.  Adsorption of HA at given pH was increasing with increasing the aromaticity of skeleton.  The data for soil HA and brown coal HA slightly differed showing, however the same trends.  The adsorption of HA on vermiculite depends not only on the electrostatic forces, but also on the interaction of hydrophobic (arom.) skeleton of HA with a clay mineral surface. 

 Stastna, P., Matejka, Z. Ligand exchange sorption of arsenates by resins loaded with metal cations Prague 2000, International Symposium & Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central & Eastern Europe, Proceedings, 5th, Prague, Czech Republic, Sept. 12-14, 2000 (2001), 241-245.  

Ligand exchange is a selective water purifn. process in which pollutants are removed from soln. by formation of a coordination complex with a metal ion held on a solid support (ion exchange resin).  Different types of resin loaded with Cu2+ or Fe3+ ions were used To remove arsenate from dil. aq. soln. by ligand exchange sorption.  It is necessary that arsenates are sorbed in preference to other common anions, e.g., Cl- and SO42-.  Arsenates were successfully removed from aq. soln. by ligand sorption.  Best results were obtained using Dowex XFS 4195 resin satd. with Cu2+.  As5+ concn. in effluent water was

Matejka, Z., Parschova, H., Ruszova, P., Jelinek, L., Benes, M., Hruby, M. Selective uptake and separation of (Mo,V,W,Ge)-oxoanions by synthetic sorbents having polyol-moieties and by polysaccharide-based biosorbents Abstracts of Papers, 222nd ACS National Meeting, Chicago, IL, United States, August 26-30, 2001 (2001), IEC-004.  

Oxoanions of metals from the group of (Mo,B,V,W,Ge,Sb,As) can be frequently found as contaminant species in various water streams having high excess of accompanying anions.  Efficient removal of oxoanions down to concns. as low as ppb-level is required for environmental reasons.  Also, recovery of some metals (Ge,B,V,W) for reuse/recycling purposes requires a highly purified product, which calls for highly selective processes.  But currently used conventional anion exchangers are lacking the sufficient selectivity and sepn. ability toward these oxoanions.  It is known that low mol. wt. substances contg. diol groupings in appropriate conformation (like hexitols or saccharides) can form cyclic complexes with oxoanions.  The formation of these complexes can be utilized for selective uptake of metals from soln., provided that the solid matrix contg. such diol-ligands will be used as a selective sorbent.  In this study, the metal uptake ability of several sorbents having polyol-moieties was investigated: a) poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrix functionalized with glucamine or tri-ethanol-amine, etc.  B) polysaccharide-based biopolymers (no functionalization required!), including crosslinked chitosan (in the bead or fiber form) or sea-weeds (natural brown-algea biopolymer having alginic acid as a main active component).  Review of results: Dynamic column runs have shown that glucamine sorbent and crosslinked chitosan and sea-weeds are able to remove (Mo,V,W,Ge) oxoanions selectively from soln. (contg. 1-15 mg/L metals and 1000 mg/L sulfate) down to level less than 0.05 mg/L.  Optimum pH range was detd. for each particular metal and each sorbent for sorption, desorption, and sepn.  Efficient sepn. of metals (using change of pH in soln. and in resin phase) was achieved for Mo-V, Mo-W, and Ge-Mo,V,W systems.

Zavodska, V., Zach, J., Trneny, J., Pavlicek, J., Kovarik, J., Matejka, Z., Culkova, A., Kucharikova, I. Manufacture of foamed polystyrene with shorter cooling time after foaming (2000), patent CZ 286166 B6 20000216.

Foamable polystyrene (PS) beads with improved processing properties, esp. with short cooling time in the mold after foaming, are obtained by carrying out the suspension polymn. of styrene in the presence of partial esters of unsatd. higher fatty acids with pentaerythritol or their combination with partial glycerides, and by impregnating the resulting PS beads with sorbitol or pentaerythritol partial esters of unsatd. higher fatty acids, esp. oleic acid, or with their combination with partial glycerides, esp. monostearoyl glycerol, and stearic acid metal salts, preferably Zn or Ca stearate.  The polyhydric alc. partial esters of unsatd. higher fatty acids are preferably those obtained by transesterification of rapeseed oil with pentaerythritol or sorbitol.  For example, PS foam produced from beads prepd. by radical suspension polymn. of styrene in the presence of 0.4% (based on monomer) of a mixt. of partial unsatd. fatty acid esters of pentaerythritol and glycerol and post-treated with 0.1% of the above mixt., 0.025% glycerol monostearate and 0.025% Zn stearate, had cooling time 3.5 min, adsorptivity 2.5 vol.% and flexural strength 0.27 MPa, vs. 11.2 min, 1.9 vol.% and 0.30 MPa for a foam produced from ordinary PS beads.

 Matejka, Z.; Neveceralova, D.; Rejzlova, O.; Gromanova, S. Nitrate removal from drinking water by an anion exchanger in the HSO4- form with reuse of electrochemically denitrified regenerant solution Special Publication - Royal Society of Chemistry (1999), 239(Advances in Ion Exchange for Industry and Research), 26-34.

The NO3 removal from drinking water with an N+Et3 anion exchanger in HSO4- form and the reuse of the obtained regenerant soln. after electrochem. NO3 redn. were investigated.  A SO4 soln. at pH3 leakage (3 were estd. (30 BV soln. amt. and HSO4- concn. 0.3-0.4 M).  The electrolytic redn. of NO3 from the spent acidic SO4 soln. proceeded efficiently at low pH on a Cu cathode.  Residual concns. of NO3 4) consumption as low as 200% (stoichiometric) and nearly no NO3 in wastewater were achieved.

 Matejka, Z.  Recovery of salts from mineral waters (1999), patent CZ 285216 B6 19990616.

Recovery of salts from mineral waters involves (1) treatment with a cation exchanger to remove Ca and Mg, (2) contacting with activated Al2O3 for selective removal of Si compds., (3) concn. by membrane dialysis (preferably electrodialysis), (4) optional mixing with the regeneration soln. from the cation exchanger contg. substances removed from the mineral waters by the cation exchanger (esp. Ca and Mg), (5) evapn. and crystn.  Regeneration of the activated Al2O3 is carried out by using a NaOH soln.  The steps of (Ca + Mg) removal and electrodialysis are done at 4-73°.

 Matejka, Z., Palaty, J. Removal of nitrates from drinking water by using strongly basic anion exchanger (1998), patent CZ 284011 B6 19980715.  

Nitrates are removed from drinking water by using a strongly basic anion exchanger contg. a triethylammonium, tripropylammonium, or tributylammonium functional group.  The anion exchanger in a hydrogensulfate form is contacted with the nitrate-contg. water.  After satn. of the anion exchanger with the nitrates, the anion exchanger is regenerated by using a NaHSO4, KHSO4, or NH4HSO4 soln., and the resulting nitrate-contg. soln. is subjected to electrolytic redn.  After electrolysis, the soln. is replenished by addn. of NaHSO4, KHSO4, or NH4HSO4 and is re-used as the regeneration soln. for the anion exchanger.  The pH of the regeneration soln. is

Matejka, Z.; Zitkova, Z. The sorption of heavy-metal cations from EDTA complexes on acrylamide resins having oligo(ethyleneamine) moieties Reactive & Functional Polymers (1997), 35(1/2), 81-88. 

Removal of heavy metals from solns. contg. a powerful chelator EDTA and the sepn. of heavy metals from this anionic ligand are important for the efficient treatment of wastewater and for recovery and reuse of heavy metals.  The optimum working conditions of acrylamide sorbents having oligo(ethyleneamine) moieties for uptake of chelated heavy metals (i.e. molar ratio {EDTA:Me}solution, sorption kinetics and soln. flow-rate, concn. of heavy metal and pH value in the loading soln., presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+ cations), for resin regeneration and for sepn. of EDTA was investigated.  Development resins having OEA moieties and some com. available exchangers were studied and compared for this application.

Matejka, Z.; Parschova, H.; Roztocil, P. Chelated heavy metals: recovery and separation from ligands Special Publication - Royal Society of Chemistry (1996), 182(Ion Exchange Developments and Applications), 112-119.  

Selective heavy metal removal from wastewater contg. strong anionic complexing agents (e.g., NTA, EDTA) requires a special acrylamide resin having oligo(ethyleneamine) moieties (triethylenetetraamine, tetraethylene-pentaamine, pentaethylenehexamine).  Use of ordinary, inexpensive carboxylic or iminodiacetate cation exchangers is not efficient for NTA and EDTA complexes due to the high stability of anionic metal complexes in the treated soln.  Weakly acidic carboxylic cation exchanger is also inefficient for metal uptake from citrate solns.  It was shown that std. carboxylic or iminodiacetate cation exchangers can be efficiently used to remove heavy metals from anionic complexes, provided suitable oligo(ethyleneamine) ligand is added to the treated soln.  Originally present heavy metal anionic complexes were partially transformed into cationic ethyleneamine-metal complexes.  Heavy metals present as cationic ethyleneamine complexes were then removed from soln. quant. without problems by cation exchangers (carboxylic or IDA-type).  To keep the soln. in an equil. state, anionic metal complexes were gradually, continuously transformed into cationic complexes until the heavy metals were completely removed from soln. by cation exchangers.  Breakthrough capacities were strongly dependent on the rate of metal re-complexation between anionic complexes (NTA, EDTA, citrate) and cationic ethyleneamine complexes.  Conditions and mechanism of this re-complexation process were studied.  Heavy metal sepn. from EA ligands was tested, IDA-resin and picolylamine-type resins were compared, and suitable operating conditions were detd.

Matejka, Z., Kubikova, J., Dittel, R. Regeneration of anion-exchange resin for preparation of potable water  (1994), patent CZ 278468 B6 19940119.

The process comprising regenerating anion-exchange resin contg. triethylammonium, tripropylammonium, or tributylammonium functional group with soln. of NaCl or KCl also includes steps of (a) washing the anion-exchange resin after the contact with chloride soln. with potable or distd. water, (b) contacting the resin with a soln. contg. 3-30 wt.% Na2SO4, K2SO4, or MgSO4, and (c) washing again with potable or distd. water to remove the sulfates.  This anion-exchange resin is used for prepn. of potable water contg.

Pavlicek, J., Kovarik, J., Trneny, J., Placek, M., Karasek, B., Vecerka, F., Matejka, Z. Mixture of mineral oils in the continuous manufacture of high-impact polystyrene  (1992), patent  CS 273385 B1 19910312.

Mixt. of 5-95% paraffin-naphthenic oil contg. 1-4% fraction volatilized at 250° and 5-95% mineral oil contg. 6-15% volatile fraction is added as a plasticizer of rubber phase into styrene (I) soln. of polybutadiene being fed into the continuous polymn. reactor of impact-resistance polystyrene (II).  The volatile oil fraction assists in vacuum stripping of free I from II melt and is recycled with I.

Matejka, Z., Zitkova, Z., Weber, R., Novotna, K. Properties and multipurpose use of chelating resins with oligo(ethyleneamine) moieties in water treatment Edited by Abe, Mitsuo; Kataoka, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takashi  New Dev. Ion Exch. Proc. Int. Conf. Ion Exch. (1991), 591-6.

Several new applications were investigated where properties of OEA-moieties can be substantially increase the efficiency of processes such as anion exchange on resin in the pronated form, selective sorption of heavy metal cations from anionic or cationic complexes, and exchange of anionic ligands on resins preloaded by heavy metals.

Strnadova, N., Janda, V., Matejka, Z., Rihova, E. Nitrate removal from drinking water by combined ion exchange and biological denitrification.  I.  Biological denitrification of regeneration solutions  Vodni Hospodarstvi (1990-1992) (1991), 41(6), 209-13.

Removal of nitrates from drinking water by using combination of ion exchange and biol. denitrification was studied.  Effects of high salt concn., temp., and pH in a regeneration soln. on biol. denitrification were examd.  Strongly basic anion exchangers were regenerated by a soln. contg. NaHCO3 and/or NaCl.  Neither HCO3- and Cl- concns. nor pH affected substantially, efficiency of biol. denitrification.  The av. efficiency was 98%.

Matejka, Z.; Weber, R. Ligand exchange sorption of carboxylic and aminocarboxylic anions by chelating resins loaded with heavy metal cations Reactive Polymers (1990), 13(3), 299-308.

The sorption of carboxylic anions (tartrate, citrate) and aminocarboxylic anions (nitrilotriacetate, EDTA) on sorbents having pendant oligo(ethyleneamine) groups in the free base form preloaded with heavy metal cations (Cu2+, Cr3+, Fe3+) was studied using a mechanism which utilizes both ligand exchange and anion exchange.  Leakage of preloaded metals into effluent was eliminated.  Aminocarboxylic ligands, which coordinate to metals through N and O donor atoms, are taken up selectively over other common anions in concns.

 Zitkova, Z., Matejka, Z. Treatment of decontamination solutions in nuclear power plants with ion exchangers.  I.  Decontamination with an EDTA solution  Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv (1990), D58, 217-32.

The so-called soft decontamination of the primary circuits of nuclear power stations consists in using sequestering org. substances at low concn.  The desired decontamination effect is achieved even at a low concn. of the soln. by selecting substances with a high complexing power (NTA, EDTA) and by continuously removing the radionuclides by means of ion exchangers.  Under column conditions, the sorption of Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, and Cr3+ from a soln. contg. an excess of EDTA was studied on a strongly acidic sulfo acid cation exchanger in the H+ from and on sorbents with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) and pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) functional groups.  The sorption efficiency was studied as a function of the pH value and soln. temp. and the presence of the accompanying cations (Na+).

 Hudson, M. J.; Matejka, Z. Extraction of copper by selective ion exchanges with pendent ethyleneimine groups - investigation of active states Separation Science and Technology (1989), 24(15), 1417-36.  

Selective ion exchangers with pendent ethyleneimine groups of the type -(NHC2H4)n.NH2, where n = 1 to 5, were prepd. and their ability to ext. cationic and anionic-chelated Cu(II) ions were evaluated.  Cu was extd. from aq. soln., and the equil. capacities of extn. varied according to the active sites in the selective ion exchangers.  The poor exchange properties of selective ion exchangers with short pendent groups were related to the nature of the active coordination sites.  The active sites on these selective ion exchangers change from 2 N atoms and 2 O atoms (N2O2) with short chains (n = 1) to 4 N atoms when n = 2 to 5.  Those which have N4 active sites appear to ext. cationic Cu(II) efficiently, but those with N2O2 sites have low capacities and Cu is easily leached from the resin even when the loading of the resin is low.  When Cu is complexed to EDTA to form an anionic complex, a side chain, like pentaethylenehexamine, is required to ext. Cu from aq. soln.  A macroporous polystyrene resin has a lower capacity for anionic chelated Cu than a polystyrene gel resin with the same functional groups due to the poorer accessibility of the active (N4) sites to the large anion.

 Papukova, K. P.; Samsonov, G. V.; Kuznetsova, N. N.; Zicmanis, A.; Steimane, L.; Stamberg, J., Peska, J., Matejka, Z. Molded ion-exchange material with improved ion-exchange capacity  (1987), patent  SU 951852 A1 19871223.  

The title materials are prepd. by immobilization of an ion exchanger in a microdispersed form in a cellulose deriv. gel.  The prodn. of the molded ion exchangers is improved and the exchange capacity increased by mixing the ion exchanger(s) with particle size 0.8-50 μ, swollen in a 5-10% aq. alkali soln., with an aq. 8-10% cellulose xanthate (I) soln. at a 0.25-1:1 wt. ratio of dry ion exchanger to I, dispersing the mixt. in PhCl in the presence of 0.04-0.8% (on PhCl) surfactant at 1:3-5 vol. ratio of the I-ion exchanger mixt. to PhCl at 18-25°, heating the dispersion for 30-40 min at 90-100°, sepg. the molded granules, and finally hydrolyzing the xanthate groups of I.

Matejka, Z., Berger, J., Minovsky, J., Eliasek, J. Anion exchanger regeneration for drinking water treatment for water with nitrate content below 15 mg/l and with chloride content below 100 mg/l  (1987), patent CS 234288 B1 19850416.  

A safe prodn. of potable water contg. ≤15 mg/L NO3- and ≤100 mg/L Cl- is realized with an anion exchanger regenerated with a soln. contg. 2-4% NaCl or KCl and 3-5% aq. NaHCO3 or KHCO3, and washed during out-of-operation periods with recirculated water satd. with CO2 at 0.2-0.4 MPa.  The method increases the capacity of anion exchangers to remove NO3- and prevents microbial contamination.  Thus, a filter contg. Wofatit Y53 which was regenerated by this method was used to treat water contg. NO3- 36.4, SO42- 24, and Cl- 28 mg/L (alky. 1.95 mequiv/L) giving potable water contg. 3- and 23 mg/L Cl- in a cycle using 350 mL H2O/mL exchanger at sp. loading 4 m3/h-m.

 Vokacova, M.; Matejka, Z.; Eliasek, J. Sorption of ammonium ions by clinoptilolite and by strongly acidic cation exchangers Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica (1986), 14(6), 605-11.

Thermal treatment of clinoptilolite (I)  [12173-10-3] increased its attrition resistance and its selective adsorption of NH4+ from wastewaters.  The breakthrough capacity of I from Nizny Hrabovee, Czechoslovakia was twice as great as that of I from Tokai, Hungary.  The total sorption capacity of I for NH4+ is not >25% of the capacity of a strongly acidic resin in the absence of other cations.  The concn. of NH4+ should not be >30 mg/L in I adsorption to avoid a too short filter run period.  NaNO3 was less effective than NaCl in the regeneration of I.  The desorption of Cs from I was not efficient which is not a disadvantage since ion exchangers used in the treatment of radioactive wastes are not usually regenerated.

Benes, M., Kahovec, J.,Tokar, O.,  Matejka, Z., Stamberg, J. Oligo(ethylenimine) derivatives of cellulose beads (1985), patent  CS 225376 B1 19840213.  

The title derivs. are prepd. by reaction of 4-toluenesulfonyl derivs. of cellulose (I) beads with polyethylene polyamines (contg. 1-10 iminoethylene units) in H2O or C1-5 alcs. at 40-150°.  Thus, 16 mL I tosylate beads (contg. 4.3 mmol tosyl groups) in 30 mL EtOH was treated with 4 g diethylenetriamine at 80° for 10 h to give a product contg. 1.65 mmol bound diethylenetriamine/g solids. 

 Matejka, Z., Eliasek, J. Separating heavy metals from complex-forming substances such as aminocarboxylic acids or their salts in aqueous solutions (1985), patent DE 3517400 A1 19851205.  

Heavy metals are sepd. from complexing materials, esp. aminocarboxylic acids, by ion exchange using a resin with chelate-forming polyethyleneimine groups and subsequent elution with acid soln. at 0.5-30% with optional pretreatment for selective elution by contacting with an aq. soln. contg. K, Na, Ca, or Mg as Cl-, SO42-, or NO3- at 0.01-10 M or with pretreatment before ion exchange by addn. of a soln. contg. Ca or Mg as Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, HCO3-, or oxide at 0.1-100 mM.  The exchanger is regenerated with an aq. soln. contg. alkali metal hydroxide carbonate, or hydrogen carbonate 0.5-30%.  Thus, Cu was sepd. from a plating bath contg. Cu 0.5 mM and EDTA 0.55 mM at pH 8.9 by ion exchange at 150 mL/h with resin contg. tetraethylenepentamine groups.  The resulting bath concn. was 0.1 mg/L after 36 column vols.  Elution was with 1.5 M H2SO4 120 mL, at 60 mL/h.

 Matejka, Z.; Eliasek, J. The use of bead cellulose anion exchangers for ultra-pure water production Edited by Naden, David; Streat, Michael Ion Exch. Technol. (1984), 153-9.  

The ability and efficiency of the bead cellulose anion exchangers to take up higher-mol.-wt. humic acids were investigated.  Desorption of these substances from cellulose resins proceeds almost quant.  Sorption capacity toward low-mol.-wt. acids is rather poor.  Equil. sorption and desorption tests, comparative dynamic (column) runs with styrene and cellulosic resins and gel chromatog. anal. of the raw and treated water proved the suitability of the bead cellulose resins to act as a simple and cheap substitute for flocculation in the prodn. of ultrapure water.

Matejka, Z. Bead cellulose anion exchangers for ultrapure water Effluent & Water Treatment Journal (1984), 24(7), 275-7.  

Bead cellulose anion exchangers, e.g., Ostsorb DEAE  [93793-36-3] (a weakly-basic resin) and Ostsorb TMHP  [93793-37-4] (a strongly-basic resin) were more effective in removing the higher-mol.-wt. portion of humic acids from water than conventional weakly- and strongly-basic resins.  The bead cellulose anion exchangers are a simple and inexpensive substitute for clarification in the prodn. of ultrapure water. 

 Kahovec, J., Benes, M., Tokar, O.,; Matejka, Z. Complexon derivatives of pearl cellulose   (1984), patent CS 225503 B1 19840213.  

Polymers useful in complexing or sepn. of heavy metals or purifn. of wastewater are prepd. by treating oligo(ethylenimine) derivs. of cellulose with excess ClCH2CO2H soln. and neutralization.  Thus, 15 mL wet diethylenetriamine deriv. of pearl cellulose (1.63 mmol bound amine/g solids) and 9.6 g ClCH2CO2H and 5.3 g Na2CO3 in 20 mL water were heated at 80° and pH 7-8.  The product contained 5.32% N (1.27 mmol bound complexon/g solid) and had sorption capacity ∼6.6 mg Cu++/mL wet resin.

 Matejka, Z., Stamberg, J., Benes, M. Bead cellulose sulfonic acid cation exchanger - kinetic properties and resistance to organic fouling Reactive Polymers, Ion Exchangers, Sorbents (1984), 3(1), 33-6.  |

The exchange rate of small inorg. cations on a cellulose cation exchanger with sulfohydroxypropyl groups in bead form is faster by an order of magnitude than on gel-type styrene sulfonic acid resins.  This was verified for film diffusion as well as for particle diffusion controlled exchange.  Compared with styrene-divinylbenzene cation exchangers, the cellulose exchanger possesses a higher resistant towards org. fouling by an org. polyvalent cation (tetraethylenepentamine), but it is more sensitive to fouling by a large, univalent, surface-active cation (cetyltrimethylammonium).

 Matejka, Z.; Kahovec, J.; Svec, F. Immobilized complexon amides-cation exchangers of high chelating activity  Polymer Bulletin (Berlin, Germany) (1983), 9(1-2-3), 139-43.  

Several complexon cation exchangers with EDTA or DTPA complexon groupings attached through the amide bond to a polymer matrix of bead cellulose or methacrylate copolymer were prepd.  The cation exchangers are comparatively stable to alk. hydrolysis.  The chelating ability of the sorbents was examd. by measuring the distribution coeffs. in Cu(II) and Ni(II) sorption from EDTA solns.  In spite of the low total capacity, cation exchangers contg. immobilized DTPA have distribution coeffs. an order of magnitude higher than those of a com. iminodiacetic resin.

Herrera, T.,  Matejka, Z. Eliasek, J. Cation exchange kinetics on carboxylic acid resins in a multicomponent system ‾H-M+-M2+ Desalination (1983), 48(2), 161-9.  

 The exchange kinetics in systems where a carboxylic cation exchange resin in the free acid form comes into contact with solns., contg. Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- were followed by a shallow bed technique.  The relation between the sorption rates of univalent and divalent cations as well as kinetics of competitive exchange in a ternary system ‾H-Na+-Mg2+ were studied at low soln. concns.  The effect of polymer matrix crosslinking was also studied.  The behavior of a sulfonic acid resin under the same conditions was given for comparison.  The results were discussed in terms of different degrees of selectivities and degrees of dissocn. of the carboxylic and sulfonic functional groups.

 Kahovec, J., Matejka, Z., Tomasek, J.  Polymeric polydonorcomplexons and their use (1983), patent DE 3240006 A1 19830707.  

Chelating resins contain (HO2CCH2)2N(CH2CH2Z)nCH2CH2N(CH2CO2H)2 groups (Z = O, S, NCH2CO2H; n = 1-3) bonded to linear or 3-dimensional polymers by ester or amide bonds.  Thus, heating 3.4 g dry cellulose beads and 7.2 g diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride in 100 mL pyridine at 65° for 24 h gave a cellulose ester  [87244-43-7] with N content 3.86% (0.92 mmol bonded ligand/g polymer) and Cu (II) capacity 0.82 mmol/g.

Matejka, Zdenek; Pechova, Martina; Eliasek, Jaroslav Effect of a quaternary surfactant upon the kinetics of proton-magnesium(2+) ion exchange on sulfonic acid cation exchangers  Reactive Polymers, Ion Exchangers, Sorbents (1983), 1(3), 207-13.

The dynamic and static effect of a quaternary surfactant on the rate of H+-Mg2+ exchange on sulfonic acid cation exchange resins of various porosity (gelular and macroporous) in the ranges of film diffusion control and particle diffusion control has been investigated.

Rousar, I., Ruzickova, D., Holub, R., Braunova, H., Matejka, Z., Prokupek, J. Condensates from sulfite pulp manufacture (1982)patent  CS 192079 B1 19790831.  

Condensates from exhaust gases from digesters and from evaporators of spent sulfite liquor are first distd. to sep. furfural (I)  [98-01-1] and MeOH  [64-17-5], followed by processing the residue on anion exchangers.  Distn. of the regenerate (obtained from the anion exchanger by elution with Na2SO3 or NaHSO3 solns.) yields I, whereas the bottoms, contg. mainly ACoNa and HCO2Na, are used along with the spent sulfite liquor in yeast manuf.

Matejka, Z.,  Michek, V., Macura, J. Nitrate removal from drinking water  (1982), patent CS 197930 B1 19800530.  

Passing water contg. 17 mg/L NO3- through a column of a strongly basic anion exchanger in the Cl- form (or optionally a combination of the Cl-, HCO3- , and SO42- forms) removes NO3- entirely without affecting the taste of the water.

Matejka, Z.; Eliasek, J.  Liquid-side diffusion-controlled cation-exchange kinetics.  Comparison between macroporous and gelular resins  Desalination (1982), 42(3), 315-20.

The rates of H+-Mg2+ exchange at low soln. concn. on several styrenesulfonic acid resins with either a macroporous or gelular matrix were measured by the shallow-bed technique.  The kinetics of Mg2+ uptake on macroporous and gelular resins were compared.  The location of the liq.-solid interphase in the resin bead, where the ion diffusion rate controlled the overall exchange rate, was estd.

Macura, J., Matejka, Z., Eliasek, J. Ion exchange kinetics in multicomponent systems on strongly acidic cationic exchange resins Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv (1982), D45, 135-52.  

Ion exchange kinetics in the systems H+-Na+, H+-Ca2+, and H+-Na+-Ca2+ were studied at 25° with the use of strongly acidic cation exchangers.  The effects of the particle size, degree of netting, concn. of the ions and acidity were studied on the exchange rate with the exchanger in spinning bed.  The H+-ion exchange is inhibited by soln. acidity.  The H+-Ca2+ exchange rate exhibits an anomalous increase in the pCH+ interval 2.0-1.7.  The kinetic dependences in the H+-Na+-Ca2+ system passes through a max., the height of which is directly proportional to the Na+ concn.

Benes, M. J.; Stamberg, J.; Ocenasek, M.; Matejka, Z. Mercury sorbents with thiol and quaternary ammonium groups Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie (1980), 91, 109-15.  Macroporous bifunctional Hg adsorbents contg. both quaternary ammonium and thiol groups were prepd. by treating poly[(vinylbenzyl)triethylammonium chloride] with KSCSOEt followed by treatment with NH4OH.  Both active groups complemented one another raising selectivity at high dilns. and capacity in the presence of excessive alkali chlorides and regenerability in repeated cycles.

Kahovec, J.; Matejka, Z.; Stamberg, J. EDTA ester of bead cellulose, a fast-kinetics chelating sorbent Polymer Bulletin (Berlin, Germany) (1980), 3(1-2), 13-17.  

Crosslinked cellulose EDTA ester (I)  [56093-81-3] (1-1.3 mmol bound EDTA/g) was prepd. from bead cellulose and EDTA dianhydride.  The stability of Cu(II) chelates at low pH and the rate of exchange of Cu are much higher for I than for cellulose iminodiacetate.  The ester is stable in neutral and acidic medium, but is hydrolyzed by alkalies.

Matejka, Z.; Erlebach, J.; Savvides, K.; Ioannis, H.; Eliasek, J. Regeneration of the acrylic weak base anion exchange resin by means of sodium carbonate  Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica (1980), 8(2), 187-90.  

 The mechanism of regeneration of a weakly basic acrylic anion exchangers, such as Wofatit Y 17  [70088-55-0] by Na2CO3 is presented and discussed.

 Ocenasek, M., Matejka, Z., Kriz, V. Sorption of mercury from aqueous solutions on polar sorbents  Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv (1980), D 41, 43-64.

Removal of Hg from wastewater was most effective with Lewatit OC 1014 (I)  [58449-44-8], a Hg selective cation exchange resin, but in Cl--contg. waters a strongly basic anion resin, Ostion ATP 3011 (II)  [78810-26-1], in which the Me3NH+ was replaced with thiol groups was also effective, whereas a chelating cationic resin, Lewatit TP 207  [57285-14-0] was least effective.  I was best regenerated with Na2S and II with concd. HCl.  Sorption was not by exchange of counterions but by a chem. reaction between the resin functional group and Hg ions.

 Matejka, Z., Erlebach, J. Regeneration of an electrolytic polishing bath with a strongly acidic cation exchange resin  Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv (1980), D 41, 65-70.  

The content of Fe in a contaminated bath contg. H3PO4 600, H2SO4 200 and Fe 20 g/L was decreased to 25% of its initial value when a strongly acidic macroporous cation exchanger (Lewatit SP 120) was used.  The content of Cr, Mo, and Ni is decreased to 25% as well.  Optimum regeneration with 15%  H2SO4detd. from elution curves is 2 vols. related to the exchanger vol.  The equil. sorption capacity of the exchanger for Fe is 35.9% of the total capacity, the selectivity coeff. being 10.1.  When 2 columns in a series are used regeneration is necessary after passing 2.2 vols. of bath as related to the exchanger vol.

Matejka, Z., Eliasek, J. Kinetics of sorption and desorption of hydrochloric acid and low molecular weight organic acids by styrene and acrylic weak base resins Water Research (1980), 14(5), 467-70.  

Several important parameters for the operation of ion exchange resins in water treatment, such as breakthrough capacity, max. flow rate, and efficiency and reversibility of org. matter sorption and desorption, exhibit a close connection with the ion exchange rate.  Therefore this value, expressed as the exchange half-time (t0.5) can be used as a criterion for a proper resin type choice and can also help to judge its use for obtaining treated water of required compn.  The sorption and desorption rates of HCl  [7647-01-0], caproic acid  [142-62-1] and sulfonsalicylic acid  [97-05-2] by styrene and acrylic weak base resins were estd., and the results obtained with particular resins were compared.  Attention was paid to the effect of gelular and macroporous matrix and soln. concn.  Acrylic resins are preferable for sorption and desorption of HCl at low concns., at higher concns. macroporous-styrene resins are better.  Sorption of low-mol. org. acids is primarily controlled by selectivity and proceeds faster on acrylic resins at all concns.  Desorption is governed by the concn. of the elution soln. rather than by selectivity and occurs faster on macroporous styrene resins.  The macroporous matrix generally has a substantially smaller kinetic advantage when using acrylic rather than styrene weak base resins.

Benes, M.; Stamberg, J.; Ocenasek, M.; Matejka, Z. Mercury sorbents with thiol and quaternary ammonium groups   Prepr. Short Contrib. - Bratislava IUPAC Int. Conf. Modif. Polym., 5th (1979), 1, 12-17.

Thiol groups were introduced into a strongly basic anion exchanger to give an adsorbent with a high affinity for chloro complexes of Hg in alk. solns.  A water slurry of poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride) was transferred (25 mL) to EtOH by washing and refluxed 9.5 h with 9.14 g K Et xanthogenate in 87.5 mL EtOH.  The product was hydrolyzed with 85 mL 7.5% NH4OH 12 h at room temp.  The resulting resin maintained a high capacity for adsorption of Hg over many adsorption-desorption cycles, while a com. anion exchanger gradually lost its capacity due to deterioration of active sites.

Talasek, V., Vosta, J., Eliasek, J., Mostecky, J.,Ocenasek, M., Matejka, Z.Treatment of surface waters and power engineering condensates containing organic cations  (1978), patent CS 171820 B1 19761129.  

 Polluted waters are passed through a mixed bed contg. a macroporous strongly acid cation exchanger (A) and a gel cation exchanger (B).  The loose inner structure of the macroporous ion exchanger permits reversible sorption and easy desorption of large org. cations and protects the gels from contact with dissolved org. substances.  Macroporous Lewatit S 100X10/50  [68517-53-3] (cross-linked with 10% divinylbenzene) or a combination of Lewatit CNP  [56940-15-9] with Zerolit 225  [37206-32-9] are used for A and the gel cation exchanger Lewatit S 100X10  [68517-52-2] for B.

Eliasek, J. Matejka, Z. Tejchman, P. Reaction kinetics of weakly basic anion exchange resins Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv (1977), D 35, 43-59.  

The kinetics of sorption and desorption of HCl at different concns. was studied for anion exchange resins with different structures (Wofatit AD 41, Lewatit MP 62, Amberlite IRA 93, Amberlite IRA 94S, Amberlite IRA 45, Zerolit HIP-isoporous, Amberlite IRA 68, and Lewatit CA 9222).  Relations modified for the method of the infinite soln. vol. were used for detn. of the controlling process of sorption.  The controlling process is the diffusion through a particle; only in the case of the monofunctional styrene gel resin Amberlite IRA 45 was the sorption controlled by reaction with a functional group.  Electrolyte invasion causes higher sorption and desorption rates of the styrene macroporous anion exchange resins in comparison with the gel types.  The sorption rates of acrylate resins are high, esp. in the region of low concns., in spite of a lower effect of the electrolyte invasion.  The resin porosity has more effect on the sorption rate than the basicity index does.

 Eliasek, J. Matejka, Z. Kinetics of copper uptake from nitrilotriacetic acid medium on cation exchange resins  Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv (1977), D 35, 35-42.  

Cation exchange resins (Lewatit S 100, Lewatit TP 207) were used for Cu uptake from complexes with org. acids used for the surface treatment of metals in the electroplating industry.  The rate of Cu uptake was detd. in relation to pH and the presence of Na in a soln.  The strongly-acidic Lewatit S 100 can be used only in the H-form, which can secure the necessary decrease in the complex stability.  If there is an excess of NTA in the soln., then Cu will pass (depending on the concn. of the accompanying cations) again into the complex with NTA.  The chelating iminodiacetate resin Lewatit TP 207 collects Cu more slowly, but the reaction is not affected either by accompanying cations or excess NTA.

Eliasek, J.; Matejka, Z. Kinetics of ion exchange.  X.  Effect of electrolyte invasion on the ion exchange rate of a strongly acidic cation exchanger Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications (1977), 42(6), 1782-5.  

 The conditions under which electrolyte invasion affects the exchange rate, even in the case of strongly acidic cation exchangers, were investigated.  The exchange rates of gel exchangers (Dowex 50X8, Dowex 50X16) and macroporous cation exchangers (Amberlite IR 200 with 22% divinyl benzene) were compared, employing different compns. and concns. of the external electrolyte solns.  The exptl. conditions ensured the exchage rate to be controlled predominantly by the particle diffusion.  Under certain conditions, the exchange rate of the macroporous exchanger is higher than that of the gel exchanger contg. the same amt. of the cross-linking agent.  This effect depends on the soln. concn. and the charges of the counterions, or the exchange rate of the macroporous exchanger is affected by the electrolyte invasion.

Kadlec, V., Matejka, Z. Demineralization of solutions (1975), patent  CS 158423 B1 19741125.

The treated feed water was passed downwards through a bed charged with a 1:1.5 mixt. of a strongly acid cation exchanger and a strongly basic anion exchanger.  Exhausted ion exchangers were sepd. by sp. wt. by flushing with water from the bottom and reactivated with 10% HCl and 4% NaOH, resp., at 120-140% of the theoretical amt. necessary for the recovery.

Matejka, Z.,  Ocenasek, M., Eliasek, J., Mostecky, J., Uher, J., Prokupek, J., Tuna, J. Simultaneous removal of aldehydes, ketones, and acids from solutions by anion exchangers  (1974), patent DE 2426274 A1 19741205.  

  Oxo compds. are removed from aq. or nonaq. solns., e.g., paper industry waste water, by weakly or moderate basic anion exchangers in the HSO3 form, because of strong retention of the formed α-hydroxy sulfonic anions by the exchangers.  Optionally, a weakly basic anion exchanger is converted to the HSO3 form by the SO2 in the soln.  By the use of weakly instead of strongly basic exchangers the effective vol. capacity was increased.  Thus, a soln. contg. 42 mequiv. AcOH/l., 2 mequiv. HCO2H/l., 5 mmoles MeCHO/l. and 10 mmoles SO2/l. was passed over a weakly basic anion exchanger (Wofatit AD 41) in form of the free base at sp. load 10 l./hr/l.  The exchanger had effective vol. capacity 1.03 equiv./l.

Kadlec, V., Matejka, Z. Desalination of water by combined ion exchange and precipitation reactions  (1973), patent  CS 151200 B1 19730917.  

Waters with a high content of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were treated with a strongly basic anion exchanger contg. quaternary ammonium groups in CO3- form which brought about anion exchange and pptn. of CaCO3 and/(or) MgCO3.  The sludge was sand filtered.  Spent ion exchanger columns were regenerated by alternative washing and aeration and treatment with a carbonate soln.

Matejka, Z., Kadlec, V. Demineralization of solutions (1973),  patent CS 149890 B1 19730823.

A combination of ion exchangers in a vertical 2-layer through-flow column is given which affords a high rate of flow and easy regeneration.  The top exchanger bed contains a 1:1.5 mixt. of strongly acid cation exchanger and a strongly basic anion exchanger with dimethylethanolammonium functional groups.  The bottom exchanger bed contains a mixt. of strongly acid cation exchanger with trimethylammonium functional groups which occupies 27% of the total anion exchanger vol. in both beds.  The processed soln. is passed through both beds from the top downwards.  During the regeneration cycle the feed of the liq. is reversed.

Kadlec, V., Sakar, F., Brodsky, A., Krejcik, J., Matejka, Z., Kittler, J. Ion exchange with partially countercurrent regeneration of the ion exchanger (1973), patent CS 149540 B1 19730725.

A vertical cylinder is charged with ion exchanger and the treated liq. passed simultaneously in 2 feeds from the top and at the bottom of the cylinder, resp.  The processed liq. is discharged by means of a collector placed inside the ion exchanger column at a level which divides the ionex bed into 2 vols. which are proportional to the vols. of the resp. feeds.  The process gives results which are equal to the classical systems and has advantages in half loss of pressure at the same outputand easier regeneration of the ion exchanger bed.  The regenerating liq. is fed at the top of the cylinder and discharged at the bottom.

Kadlec, V., Matejka, Z. Demineralization of solutions by cation exchange. (1973), CS 149735 B1 19730823.  

Feed waters were passed through a bed of a medium strong phosphonate type cation exchanger in H+ form which exchanged all Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions for H+.  Subsequent treatment of the effluent with a strongly acid cation exchanger removed the Na+ and K+ ions.  In the given combination, the phosphonate ion exchanger is superior over the usual ion exchange systems in favorable exchange kinetics, higher useful capacity and sp. load.  It saves regeneration acid which is first fed into the strongly acid cation exchanger bed and the effluent used to recover the phosphonate cation exchanger.

Kadlec, V., Matejka, Z. Partial deionization or demineralization of solutions (1973), patent CS 150064 B1 19730904.

Feed water was passed through a column of a medium acid cation exchanger in H-form contg. P in the functional group to exchange Ca2+and Mg2+ and partially exchange Na at the beginning of the cycle.  The effluent had mineral acidity corresponding to the Ca2+ and Mg2+counterbalanced by strong acid.  Subsequently CO2 was stripped by aeration and water passed through a basic anion exchanger in OH-form.  The P-contg. cation exchanger was regenerated with a stoichiometric amt. of HCl or H2SO4.

 Kadlec, V., Matejka, Z. Separation by uni- and multivalent cations and selective deionization by a phosphonic cation exchanger   Journal of Applied Chemistry & Biotechnology (1973), 23(1), 41-50.  

The phosphonic cation exchanger in free acid form is able to remove multivalent cations from neutral and medium acidic solns. of salts of strong acids and is regenerated by a stoichiometric amt. of regenerating agent.  It is possible to sep. multivalent cations from univalent cations in a simple way by means of a phosphonic cation exchanger, followed by a weakly basic anion exchange resin.  This results in a selective or partial deionization of solns. with an eventual recovery of multivalent cations using an economical regeneration dosage and with a min. of waste.

 Matejka, Z.  Fields of application of electrodeionization and the electrodialytic regeneration of ion exchanger mixtures Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica (1973), 1(3), 323-4.

Electrodeionization allowed continuous ion exchange on a solid bed layer with com. ion exchangers.  The ion exchanger was operated in the electrodialysis mode.  In electrodeionization the silicic acid was adsorbed on the surface of the anion exchanger and subsequently dissociated.  The desalination of water contg. humic acid showed decreasing electrolytic efficiency.  Dipolar ion exchangers were regenerated electrodialytically.

Kadlec, V., Matejka, Z., Ocenasek, M. Regeneration of mixed ion exchanger bed in sit (1972), patent  CS 146595 19721215.

Mixts. of a slightly acidic cation exchanger contg. carboxylic or phenol groups, and a slightly basic anion exchanger contg. amino groups are regenerated by a single feed of water satd. with CO2 which is passed countercurrently to the direction of the deionization cycle.  During the regeneration cycle, H2O and CO2 react with the cation (X) retained by the cation exchanger during the deionization cycle to yield X+ and HCO3-which takes part in the regeneration of the anion exchanger.  This reacts with X+ and HCO3- to give the free base and the HCO3- form.  From the effluent, CO2 can be stripped by aeration and recycled.

 Mostecky, J., Vosta, J., Talasek, V., Eliasek, J., Matejka, Z. Selective recovery of nonferrous metals from industrial waste waters(1972), patent CS 145167 19720915.  

 Approx. 80-5% Mn, Cu, and Zn were recovered from washing and recycled waters of ore-processing plants by passing through chelation ion exchangers contg. iminodiacetate of carboxylic group in Na cycle.

Matejka, Z. Continuous electrodeionization and electrodialytic regeneration of ion-exchangers Chemicky Prumysl (1972), 22(7), 356-7.

Advantages and drawbacks of the title processes are discussed from the point of view of the effect of the compn. of treated solns. on the current efficiency of the processes and of the regeneration of mixts. of cation- and anion-exchange resins and amphoteric ion-exchange resins.  Some results of the application of the title processes for removing SiO2 and humic acids from water and for regenerating granular and powd. ion-exchange resins are given.

Mach, L., Machova, H., Matejka, Z. Search for correlations for evaluation of the suitability of raw materials in mineral wool production by the GUHA method Stavivo (1972), 50(2), 49-51.

Description of the principle and an example of the application of the GUHA method for the soln. of complicated technol. problems during the mineral wool production such as the influence of the rock compn. on the melt, the suitability of charges, and the suitability of individual rocks for the wool production

Talasek, V.,  Mostecky, J.,Vosta, J., Eliasek, J., Matejka, Z. Separation of nonferrous metals from calcium-containing solutions using weak acid or chelating ion exchangers Chemický Průmysl (1972), 22(2), 69-71.  

Mn2+ and Cu2+ can be sepd. from Ca2+-contg. solns. by the carboxylic cation exchanger Amberlite IRC-50 or by the chelating ion exchanger Dowex A-1 at high sp. loads.  The latter resin is advantageously used for systems with small differences in selectivities since the stability of the nonferrous-metals chelates generally differs from that of alk. earths.  The carboxylic resin is applicable for systems characterized by different selectivities of their components.  With respect to the resp. vol. capacity, the carboxylic resin is more suitable for adsorbing Cu and the chelating resin for the sepn. of Mn.  The degree of purity and concn. of Mn and Cu in the eluates from both the tested resins is high enough to justify their further treatment.

Matejka, Z., Talasek, V., Vosta, J., Mostecky, J.,Eliasek, J.,  Singer, P. Regeneration of mixed-bed ion exchangers  (1971), patent CS 140562 19710315.  

 Mixed beds, contg. an acid or polyfunctional cation exchanger in H+, Na+, or mixed cycle (Na+, Ca2+, Fe3+), and a basic or polyfunctional anion exchanger in OH-, Cl-, or mixed cycle (Cl-, SO42-, PO43-), are regenerated with aq. 1-20% piperidine or cyclohexyl amine, which converts the cation exchanger into piperidinium or cyclohexylammonium cycle, and the anion exchanger into OH- cycle in a single run without sepg. the resins.  The regeneration process is esp. useful for the treatment of industrial condensates and cooling waters.

Matejka, Z.,  Kadlec, V. Regeneration of strongly basic cation exchanger  (1970), patent CS 137851 19700815.  

Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, contg. quaternary N groups, are regenerated by a 2-step process which saves NaOH and efficiently removes H2SiO3 and org. contaminants.  The column is washed with a 1-3% NaCl soln. alkalized with NaOH to  pH 8-14 and subsequently with a 2-4% NaOH soln.  The process is esp. useful in the treatment of feed water.

Matejka, Z. Continuous production of high-purity water by electrodeionization  Journal of Applied Chemistry & Biotechnology (1971), 21(4),  117-20.  

Operating conditions were investigated for a packed-bed membrane cell for electrodeionization of brackish or tap water to give high-purity water with elec. cond. of the order 0.1 μmho/cm.  Flow rates of 10-40 hr-1, c.ds. of 0.5-5 mA/cm2, and incoming soln. concns. of up to 0.01N were used.  Strongly acidic cation-exchange resin plus strongly basic anion-exchange resin in the vol. ratio 1:1 was the most effective, and the particle size needed to be 60-80 mesh and resin bed thickness 3 mm for optimum current efficiency in purifying water to the accepted std.

 Ocenasek, M., Kadlec, V., Matejka, Z. Regeneration of weakly alkaline anion exchange resins  Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Chemicko-Technologicke v Praze, D:  Technologie Paliv (1969), 18, 39-47.  

The possibility of decreasing the necessary amt. of H2O needed for regeneration of anion-exchange resins fouled with org. materials, based on using NaHCO3 instead of NaOH, was studied and tested successfully.

Talasek, V., Vosta, J., Matejka, Z., Eliasek, J., Mostecky, J., Singer, P. Treatment of condensate in power engineering installations (1969),  patent CS 133232 19690715.  

Cation-exchanger beds in the piperidinium from have a very low selectivity coeff. for the piperidinium cation when the cation exchanger is in a neutral medium.  In combination with simultaneous alkalization of the feed-water with piperidine, there is provided quant. trapping of all metal ions that have gotten into the condensate by leakage or corrosion.

Kadlec, V., Matejka, Z. Mixed bed de-ionization by weak electrolyte ion-exchange resins regenerated in situ by carbon dioxide  Journal of Applied Chemistry (1969), 19(12), 352-5.

Phenol-carboxylic types of weakly acidic cation exchangers have significant salt-splitting characteristics, which improve the kinetics of a mixed bed composed of weakly dissocd. ion-exchange resins.  This system seems to be effective for de-ionization of high-salinity water and has produced water of suitable quality and sufficient break-through capacity.  Weak electrolyte ion-exchange resins in a mixed bed can be regenerated with water satd. with CO2 with possible re-use of the gas.

Matejka, Z. Continuous and simultaneous removal of  anions and dissolved oxygen  from water by an ion exchange membrane cell Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan (1968), 41(4), 1024-5.  

A modified ion-exchange process based on the interaction of dissolved O with a SO32- form of a strong base anion exchange resin is described for the removal of dissolved O from anion-free water.  The process is carried out continuously in an electrolytic membrane cell.  SO32-are transported under the influence of an applied elec. potential across an anion exchange membrane Permaplex A-20 into a packed compartment; thus particles of resin are continuously converted into SO32-- form.  SO42- which result from the reaction of O on SO32-, are transported across the membrane into an anode compartment.  A method for avoiding contamination of the deoxygenated water by SO32- is described.  Resin in the packed membrane cell is continuously and simultaneously converted into SO32- and OH- form and is capable of the quant. uptake of both dissolved O and anions from the water.  By a variation of the conditions on which the concn. polarization depends, the ratio of the functional groups converted into OH- and SO32- forms can be varied, and enabling the treatment of solns. which are rich in anions.  It is possible to reduce the dissolved O content to

Kadlec, V., Matejka, Z.; Ocenasek, M. Sodium bicarbonate as regenerating agent for weakly basic anion exchangers.  Mitteilungen der Vereinigung der Grosskesselbesitzer (1967), No. 108, 209-10. 

In the regeneration of weakly basic anion exchangers, e.g. Wofatit L150 or Amberlite IR 145, with 4% NaOH, Na2CO3, or NH4OH the consumption of water for washing increases over 3 years from 7, 6, and 6 times the resin bed vol. to 47, 39, and 15 times, resp.  By using NaHCO3as the regenerating agent the vol. of washing water remains at 5 times the bed vol. with considerable saving in time and water consumption in industrial plants.

 Ocenasek, M.; Matejka, Z. The influence of organic matter on anion exchangers  Sb. Vysoke Skoly Chem. Technol. Praze, Technol. Vody (1962), 5(2), 293-312.

Asmit 259 or similar weakly basic porous anion exchangers can deionize water and remove from it org. matter.  It is regenerated with satd. NaHCO3 soln. and requires 178 g. NaHCO3/l. of resin.  Regeneration with alk. soln. of NaCl after 60 cycles, when the resin required 4.5 g. O/l. of resin for the oxidn. of org. matter with Ce4+, brought it back to the original value.  The capacity of Asmit 259 has not been impaired during the expts. and remained 300 meq./l.

Matejka, Z.  Operating experience with magnetic water treatment  Chemicky Prumysl (1966), 16(6), 322-6.  

Parameters and informations are given about the Czechoslovakian device for magnetic water treatment MUV, which is equiv. to CEPI W of a Belgian firm EPURO and which is suitable for treating of water with max. 200 mg. of salts/l.  No inhibition of the surface corrosion caused by CO2 and reported for CEPI W was observed; only the corrosion by O was inhibited in some cases at an elevated temp.  This fact was caused probably by a protecting coat of Fe3O4 formed from Fe(OH)3 by the release of H.  This reaction was more rapid in a magnetic field.

Matejka, Z. Reduction and oxidation of liquids and of ionic and nonionic constituents of liquids. Electrodialysis apparatus (1965), patent  CS 114667 19650515.  

A method and app. are described in which the processed liquid is passed continuously onto an ion exchanger resin or adsorbent.  This, in turn, is treated counter- or concurrently with ions of regenerating electrolyte supplied and removed by elec. current.  Thus, to remove dissolved O, the processed H2O is passed into a compartment contg. a standard strongly basic anion exchanger resin between 2 membranes in SO32- cycle.  Dissolved O reacts with SO32- and the resulting SO42- ions are continuously removed from the resin through the membrane into the adjoining compartment with streaming H2O or electrolyte to provide sufficient elec. cond. of the app.  Simultaneously are fed SO32- ions from the regeneration compartment which is sepd. from the cathode space by a cation exchanger membrane to prevent migration of OH- ions.  The content of salts in the treated H2O is not raised by the described process.

Aktualizováno: 11.6.2015 09:58, Autor: Eva Mištová

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